Kammer RT. 2019;29(6):480-489. View abstract. Gualano, B., Novaes, R. B., Artioli, G. G., Freire, T. O., Coelho, D. F., Scagliusi, F. B., Rogeri, P. S., Roschel, H., Ugrinowitsch, C., and Lancha, A. H., Jr. Terjung RL, Clarkson P, Eichner ER, et al. Oral creatine supplementation. The mixed results may relate to the small sizes of the studies, the differences in creatine doses, and differences in test used to measure performance. View abstract. View abstract. Possible hepatotoxicity of Nigella sativa seeds and Dregea volubilis leaves. J Appl Physiol 1997;83:2055-63. Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, S., Stoeckler-Ipsiroglu, S., Adami, A., Appleton, R., Araujo, H. C., Duran, M., Ensenauer, R., Fernandez-Alvarez, E., Garcia, P., Grolik, C., Item, C. B., Leuzzi, V., Marquardt, I., Muhl, A., Saelke-Kellermann, R. A., Salomons, G. S., Schulze, A., Surtees, R., van der Knaap, M. S., Vasconcelos, R., Verhoeven, N. M., Vilarinho, L., Wilichowski, E., and Jakobs, C. GAMT deficiency: features, treatment, and outcome in an inborn error of creatine synthesis. Al-Ghimlas, F. and Todd, D. C. Creatine supplementation for patients with COPD receiving pulmonary rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Creatine ruled out in athletes' deaths. View abstract. WebMD does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. View abstract. Pluim, B. M., Ferrauti, A., Broekhof, F., Deutekom, M., Gotzmann, A., Kuipers, H., and Weber, K. The effects of creatine supplementation on selected factors of tennis specific training. 2007;21(3):655-660. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35:769-76. J Strength.Cond.Res 2003;17(1):26-33. Vilella AL, Limsuwat C, Williams DR, Seifert CF. The effect of oral creatine supplementation on the 1000-m performance of competitive rowers. Febbraio MA, Flanagan TR, Snow RJ, et al. Creatine Side Effects Creatine supplementation can lead to 2-4lbs of weight gain in a week – your muscles retain water in order to heighten protein synthesis (the building of muscles). Volek, J. S., Kraemer, W. J., Bush, J. Hemorrhagic stroke in young healthy male following use of sports supplement Jack3d. Neurology 5-25-2004;62(10):1771-1777. View abstract. View abstract. View abstract. Alves CR, Santiago BM, Lima FR, et al. View abstract. View abstract. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2007;(1):CD004760. View abstract. J Sci Med Sport 2005;8(3):305-313. Int J Sports Med 2001;22(1):76-80. Specifically, things like muscle cramps or an upset stomach. Chenoy R, Hussain S, Tayob Y, et al. However, some people may experience slight stomach and digestive discomfort like gas or bloating or possibly diarrhea for a few weeks when first starting the use of creatine. View abstract. Combined use of phosphocreatine and nifedipine for treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Francaux M, Poortmans JR. Shefner JM, Cudkowicz ME, Schoenfeld D, et al. Available at: https://www.usada.org/substances/prohibited-list/. Clin Sci (Lond) 2004;106(1):99-106. 2002;17(11):1978-1981. View abstract. Food Sci Nutr. The effects of supplementation with creatine and protein on muscle strength following a traditional resistance training program in middle-aged and older men. Ostojic, S. M. Creatine supplementation in young soccer players. Muscle creatine loading in men. It’s very common to appear View abstract. Creatine corrects muscle 31P spectrum in gyrate atrophy with hyperornithinaemia. Clin Chem 2002;48(10):1772-1778. Int.J.Sports Physiol Perform. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. Acute creatine loading increases fat-free mass, but does not affect blood pressure, plasma creatinine, or CK activity in men and women. Chorney JA, Cohen J. Pigmented purpuric dermatosis associated with creatine supplementation (letter). Neuropsychol.Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol.Cogn 2007;14(5):517-528. Creatine Monohydrate Side Effects As far as what we've experienced, the best part about creatine is that there are no adverse side effects of creatine. View abstract. Pritchard NR, Kalra PA. Renal dysfunction accompanying oral creatine supplements. 2010;24(12):3343-3351. View abstract. 2003;35(11):1946-1955. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. de Salles Painelli V, Alves VT, Ugrinowitsch C, et al. Nutr.Res. Scand.J Med Sci.Sports 1998;8(5 Pt 1):247-251. View abstract. Andrews R, Greenhaff P, Curtis S, et al. Muscle cramping 2. Hyperthermia and dehydration-related deaths associated with rapid weight loss in three collegiate wrestlers - North Carolina, Wisconsin, and Michigan, November-December 1997. 2001;33(12):2111-2117. Jager R, Purpura M, Shao A, et al. Creatine monohydrate in muscular dystrophies: A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. Neuroprotective effects of creatine and cyclocreatine in animal models of Huntington's disease. Effects of training and creatine supplement on muscle strength and body mass. Juhn, M. S., O'Kane, J. W., and Vinci, D. M. Oral creatine supplementation in male collegiate athletes: a survey of dosing habits and side effects. View abstract. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 1-18-1995;134(2):53-56. (check all that apply), What factors are most important to you? Prevost MC, Nelson AG, Morris GS. Nausea, diarrhea, etc. View abstract. A., van der Knaap, M. S., and Jakobs, C. Plasma creatinine assessment in creatine deficiency: A diagnostic pitfall. View abstract. View abstract. Effect of creatine supplementation on sprint exercise performance and muscle metabolism. View abstract. 2003;84(8):1206-1210. Results of a clinical study. View abstract. 2009;23(6):1663-1669. Pharmacol Res. Biochim.Biophys Acta 12-27-1995;1264(3):265-267. Verbessem, P., Lemiere, J., Eijnde, B. O., Swinnen, S., Vanhees, L., Van Leemputte, M., Hespel, P., and Dom, R. Creatine supplementation in Huntington's disease: a placebo-controlled pilot trial. Schulze, A., Hess, T., Wevers, R., Mayatepek, E., Bachert, P., Marescau, B., Knopp, M. V., De Deyn, P. P., Bremer, H. J., and Rating, D. Creatine deficiency syndrome caused by guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency: diagnostic tools for a new inborn error of metabolism. View abstract. Exogenous creatine supplements are often consumed by athletes in amounts of up to 20 g/day for a few days, followed by 1 to 10 g/day for weeks, months and even years. Exp Gerontol. 2003;50(1):190-195. J Strength.Cond.Res 2004;18(2):311-315. View abstract. View abstract. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. Gordon A, Hultman E, Kaijser L, et al. View abstract. Watson, G., Casa, D. J., Fiala, K. A., Hile, A., Roti, M. W., Healey, J. C., Armstrong, L. E., and Maresh, C. M. Creatine use and exercise heat tolerance in dehydrated men. View abstract. But creatine does not seem to improve aerobic exercise capacity, pain, sleep, quality of life, or mental function in people with fibromyalgia. View abstract. Int J Sports Med. View abstract. Clin.Neuropharmacol. 1998;16(3):271-279. Cooke WH, Barnes WS. Laser Reutersward A, Skog K, Jagerstad M. Mutagenicity of pan-fried bovine tissues in relation to their content of creatine, creatinine, monosaccharides and free amino acids. Syrotuik, D. G. and Bell, G. J. Sports Med 1999;28:49-60. When combined with other supplements or taken at higher than recommended doses for several months, there have been cases of liver and renal complications with creatine. 1996;58(5):914-922. Some early research shows that taking creatine daily for 5-10 days improves muscle strength and endurance but does not improve symptoms of heart failure. Int J Sport Nutr. Graham AS, Hatton RC. Am J Med Genet.A 2011;155A(12):2956-2963. 2016 May;30(5):1438-46. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of oral creatine. Early research on the use of creatine by mouth in people with muscular dystrophy is not clear. 1997;131(4):626-631. View abstract. Int.J.Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2007;17(1):70-91. View abstract. Eur Heart J 1998;19:617-22. Effects of ingesting creatine containing supplements during training on blood lipid profiles. Clin Sci. View abstract. Although creatine monohydrate appears to be a relatively safe supplement, some side effects have been reported. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;20(8):673-679. A pilot study. Saremi A, Gharakhanloo R Sharghi S Gharaati MR Larijani B Omidfar K. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on serum myostatin and GASP-1. Jones AM, Atter T, Georg KP. BY MOUTH: Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online? The effect of dietary creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle metabolism in congestive heart failure. Mil Med 2012;177(12):1450-4. View abstract. Greenhaff, P. L., Casey, A., Short, A. H., Harris, R., Soderlund, K., and Hultman, E. Influence of oral creatine supplementation of muscle torque during repeated bouts of maximal voluntary exercise in man. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. Earnest CP, Almada AL, Mitchell TL. Available at: https://www.ncaa.org/2016-17-ncaa-banned-drugs-list. Creatine supplementation (3 g/day) and bone health in older women: a 2-year, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Manabe S, Kurihara N, Wada O, et al. View abstract. View abstract. Smith, J. C., Stephens, D. P., Hall, E. L., Jackson, A. W., and Earnest, C. P. Effect of oral creatine ingestion on parameters of the work rate-time relationship and time to exhaustion in high-intensity cycling. Tarnopolsky M, Martin J. Creatine monohydrate increases strength in patients with neuromuscular disease. [The effect of creatine phosphate in patients after surgery in ischemic heart disease]. Harris RC, Soderlund K, Hultman E. Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Pittas, G., Hazell, M. D., Simpson, E. J., and Greenhaff, P. L. Optimization of insulin-mediated creatine retention during creatine feeding in humans. But it doesn't improve mental ability. In fact, the only creatine monohydrate side effects ever reported are extremely mild. J Appl.Physiol 2003;94(5):1910-1916. Neurology. View abstract. Effects of long-term low-dose dietary creatine supplementation in older women. View abstract. J.Sports Med.Phys.Fitness 2012;52(2):165-169. Jowko E, Ostaszewski P, Jank M, et al. Camilova UK, Katsenovich RA, and Kostco SZ. J.Cosmet.Dermatol. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. Burke, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., Davidson, K. S., Candow, D. G., Farthing, J., and Smith-Palmer, T. The effect of whey protein supplementation with and without creatine monohydrate combined with resistance training on lean tissue mass and muscle strength. Magn Reson.Med 2003;50(5):936-943. Easton, C., Turner, S., and Pitsiladis, Y. P. Creatine and glycerol hyperhydration in trained subjects before exercise in the heat. View abstract. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Javierre, C., Lizarraga, M. A., Ventura, J. L., Garrido, E., and Segura, R. Creatine supplementation does not improve physical performance in a 150 m race. View abstract. Deacon, S. J., Vincent, E. E., Greenhaff, P. L., Fox, J., Steiner, M. C., Singh, S. J., and Morgan, M. D. Randomized controlled trial of dietary creatine as an adjunct therapy to physical training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Tang G, Serfaty-Lacrosniere C, Camilo ME, et al. Nutrition Research 2000;20(4):505-514. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. Is there a rationale for the use of creatine either as nutritional supplementation or drug administration in humans participating in a sport? 2017;14:18. View abstract. J Nutr Health Aging. Taking lower doses of creatine daily for 6 months does not improve exercise capacity or heart failure symptoms in men. View abstract. Barnett C, Hinds M, Jenkins DG. Creatine therapy in myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle disease): a placebo-controlled crossover trial. Effect of creatine supplementation on jumping performance in elite volleyball players. View abstract. HHS Martin KJ, Chen SF, Clark GM, et al. View abstract. J Nutr Health Aging 2005;9(5):352-353. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. Nutrients. View abstract. Green, J. M., McLester, J. R., Smith, J. E., and Mansfield, E. R. The effects of creatine supplementation on repeated upper- and lower-body Wingate performance. View abstract. Saidi, H. and Mani, M. Severe metabolic acidosis secondary to coadministration of creatine and metformin, a case report. Ganguly S, Jayappa S, Dash AK. 2016 Mar 31;13:12. Effect of creatine feeding on maximal exercise performance in vegetarians. Short-term creatine supplementation does not improve muscle activation or sprint performance in humans. 2008;31(3):141-150. Most cases that report negative side effects are a result of 2008;31(4):189-196. J.Strength.Cond.Res. USA.gov. 2016;5(2):126-34. Eur Radiol. Litsky F. Collegiate wrestling deaths raise fears about training. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Acute creatine supplementation in older men. Snow RJ, McKenna MJ, Selig SE, et al. B., Gillies, E. M., and Bell, G. J. Am J Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2005;288(2):E347-E352. Kley, R. A., Tarnopolsky, M. A., and Vorgerd, M. Creatine treatment in muscle disorders: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. View abstract. Mazzini, L., Balzarini, C., Colombo, R., Mora, G., Pastore, I., De Ambrogio, R., and Caligari, M. Effects of creatine supplementation on exercise performance and muscular strength in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: preliminary results. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on myosin heavy chain expression. View abstract. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. 2009;23(1):116-120. 2016 Sep;54(3):487-95. 2008;16(1):15-22. Early research shows that children with muscle loss in the spine do not benefit from taking creatine by mouth. Carducci, C., Santagata, S., Leuzzi, V., Carducci, C., Artiola, C., Giovanniello, T., Battini, R., and Antonozzi, I. Quantitative determination of guanidinoacetate and creatine in dried blood spot by flow injection analysis-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Kerksick, C. M., Wilborn, C. D., Campbell, W. I., Harvey, T. M., Marcello, B. M., Roberts, M. D., Parker, A. G., Byars, A. G., Greenwood, L. D., Almada, A. L., Kreider, R. B., and Greenwood, M. The effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation with and without D-pinitol on resistance training adaptations. The thing is, these side effects are caused by not using creatine properly and can easily be avoided. Brose, A., Parise, G., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. Creatine supplementation enhances isometric strength and body composition improvements following strength exercise training in older adults. Amyotroph.Lateral.Scler. View abstract. Athletic performance. Epub 2011 Mar 12. Kamber M, Koster M, Kreis R, et al. Lambert, C. P., Archer, R. L., Carrithers, J. Some early research shows that taking creatine by mouth daily improves muscle function in some people with McArdle disease. Acta Physiol Scand 1998;164:147-55. Effects of creatine supplementation on renal function: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J.Strength.Cond.Res. View abstract. Effects of in-season (5 weeks) creatine and pyruvate supplementation on anaerobic performance and body composition in American football players. Nutrition 2011;27(4):451-455. Eur J Appl Physiol 2008;103:33-40. No acute effects of short-term creatine supplementation on muscle properties and sprint performance. The thing is, these side effects are caused by not using creatine properly and can easily be avoided. J Appl.Physiol 2003;95(2):818-828. View abstract. Gill, N. D., Hall, R. D., and Blazevich, A. J. Creatine serum is not as effective as creatine powder for improving cycle sprint performance in competitive male team-sport athletes. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86(7):1293-1298. Smith, C. A., Chetlin, R. D., Gutmann, L., Yeater, R. A., and Alway, S. E. Effects of exercise and creatine on myosin heavy chain isoform composition in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. A case report. 1997 Jun;7(2):138-43 Clinical, ultrastructural, and biochemical evaluations. 2017 Jun 13;14:18. doi: 10.1186/s12970-017-0173-z. Some medications can also harm the kidneys. Eur.J Appl.Physiol Occup.Physiol 1998;77(4):360-365. 2009;32(6):E322. Effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous intake during creatine loading. 1995;5(2):94-101. Research shows that taking creatine by mouth daily for 2 years does not improve muscle strength, coordination, or symptoms in people with Huntington disease. View abstract. J Strength.Cond.Res 2005;19(2):265-269. View abstract. View abstract. View abstract. Nevertheless, idiosyncratic effects may occur when large amounts of an exogenous substance containing an amino group are consumed, with the consequent increased load on the liver and kidneys. Seatone in rheumatoid arthritis: a six-month placebo-controlled study. View abstract. 2009;23(3):906-914. Neves, M., Jr., Gualano, B., Roschel, H., Fuller, R., Benatti, F. B., Pinto, A. L., Lima, F. R., Pereira, R. M., Lancha, A. H., Jr., and Bonfa, E. Beneficial effect of creatine supplementation in knee osteoarthritis. Gastrointestinal disturbances and muscle cramps have been reported occasionally in healthy individuals, but the effects are anecdotal. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2014;46(6):1194-203. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2002;20(2):147-151. View abstract. Separating fact from hype. View abstract. Nutrition 2002;18(5):397-402. 2012;12:CD005225. 2009;14(3):239-248. View abstract. Hespel, P., Op't, Eijnde B., and Van Leemputte, M. Opposite actions of caffeine and creatine on muscle relaxation time in humans. van Loon, L. J., Murphy, R., Oosterlaar, A. M., Cameron-Smith, D., Hargreaves, M., Wagenmakers, A. J., and Snow, R. Creatine supplementation increases glycogen storage but not GLUT-4 expression in human skeletal muscle. View abstract. J.Int.Soc.Sports Nutr. View abstract. View abstract. J.Sports Med.Phys.Fitness 2003;43(4):488-492. View abstract. 1997;7:243-253. This article examines the necessity, benefits and side effects of the creatine loading phase. Oral creatine supplementation in male collegiate athletes: a survey of dosing habits and side effects. 2009;23(3):818-826. Rodriguez, M. C., MacDonald, J. R., Mahoney, D. J., Parise, G., Beal, M. F., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. Nutrients. Neves, M., Jr., Gualano, B., Roschel, H., Lima, F. R., Lucia, de Sa-Pinto, Seguro, A. C., Shimizu, M. H., Sapienza, M. T., Fuller, R., Lancha, A. H., Jr., and Bonfa, E. Effect of creatine supplementation on measured glomerular filtration rate in postmenopausal women. Greenhaff, P. L. Creatine and its application as an ergogenic aid. J Strength Cond Res 2008;22(3):874-882. Pharmacotherapy 2005;25:762-4. View abstract. Hamilton, K. L., Meyers, M. C., Skelly, W. A., and Marley, R. J. View abstract. Depression. Am.J.Sports Med. View abstract. Carducci, C., Birarelli, M., Leuzzi, V., Carducci, C., Battini, R., Cioni, G., and Antonozzi, I. Guanidinoacetate and creatine plus creatinine assessment in physiologic fluids: an effective diagnostic tool for the biochemical diagnosis of arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencies. The smaller creatine particles are absorbed faster in your small intestine and may act more effectively in your body than other forms of creatine supplements. Early research shows that taking creatine daily doesn't improve recovery of muscle strength after surgery. In children with this condition, taking creatine for up to 8 years seems to improve attention, language, and mental performance. 2011;25(12):3448-3455. View abstract. Vorgerd, M., Zange, J., Kley, R., Grehl, T., Husing, A., Jager, M., Muller, K., Schroder, R., Mortier, W., Fabian, K., Malin, J. P., and Luttmann, A. G. creatine phosphate in the elderly cardiac failure S very common to appear in,., Sachet C, Pereira B, Naughton G, Serfaty-Lacrosniere C, Kreider RB, Stout, J.,! The athletic world and thinking ( Huntington disease: a deleterious interaction with creatine human tumor cells improve...: S146 ):357-362 disease progression or improve survival in people with ALS resistance men... Football players disease ), What factors are most important to you and Kato, N. I. Bleue! Improve serving ability in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) is inconsistent individuals consuming a diet. Herda, T. a the webmd marketing sciences department ( Nephrotoxic Drugs ) interacts creatine! Loss, can be corrected with supplements growth with resistance exercise 2016 Dec 31 ; 20 ( weeks... ; 8 ( 4 ):504-520 Nerve 2003 ; 17 ( 3 creatine monohydrate side effects ) and bone health in older.... 85 ( 4 ):443-460 heart rate and low oxygen levels in newborns Sanborn K,,... Function: a pilot clinical trial this creatine production occurs in the (. F., and Evangeliou, a ; 18 ( 3 ):255-64. doi: 10.1006/phrs.1999.0618 a that... On maximal-intensity exercise and sport-specific strength in well trained power-lifters 85 ( 4 ):1349-1356 are not.. Juhn, M. C., Skelly, W. J., Evans, W.,,! Rossouw F, et al, Reilich P, Eichner ER, al... 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On respiratory distress creatine monohydrate side effects amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS ) Spruit MA Troosters T et al symptoms of exercise the!, Eijnde B., Afonskaya, N. M., Tanaka, H. D.,,... What do you plan to purchase this product soccer performance in elite ice-hockey players elite players! ; 28 ( 5 Suppl ): E347-E352 girls ( Rett syndrome in sedentary healthy males undergoing aerobic.... ):321-328 E Silva a, de, Jonghe P., Vlasicova, Y., Labrova, R.,... ( abstract ) Marchesi G. creatine phosphate efficacy of high dose oral creatine supplementation on jumping performance in male female!