If you remain in me and I in you, you will bear much fruit; apart from me you can do nothing. (John 15:7, NKJV), Verse 4 says "Abide in Me, and I in you. In John 15, Jesus describes himself as the true vine and his Father as the vinedresser. John 15:1-8. Answer: In John 15 Jesus uses the relationship of branches to the vine to illustrate our relationship to Him: “I am the true vine, and my Father is the vinedresser.Every branch in me that does not bear fruit he takes away, and every branch that does bear fruit he prunes, that it may bear more fruit. I f we say that we have not sinned, we make Him a liar and His word is not in us." This is the promise which He Himself made to us: eternal life." In contrast, Jesus is the true vine. 5 “I am the vine; you are the branches. John 15:8. Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary 15:1-8 Jesus Christ is the Vine, the true Vine. To abide in Christ —what does it mean? The union of the human and Divine natures, and the fulness of the Spirit that is in him, resemble the root of … The branch cannot bear fruit by itself, it must remain in the vine; so neither can you bear fruit, unless you remain in me. [⇑ See verse text ⇑] During His earthly ministry, Jesus' actions often inspired others to glorify God the Father (Matthew 9:8; Luke 17:15–16; John 11:4). !!!! English Standard Version Update. As the branch cannot bear fruit by itself, unless it abides in the vine, neither can you, unless you abide in me. Jesus' teaching on the vine and the branches isn't like most of the parables in the Synoptic Gospels, which are usually stories with one or more spiritual points. Neither can you bear fruit unless you remain in me. Piety then, manifested in good works, in love, and self-denial, is as natural, as easy, as unconstrained. Again, it is necessary to note that John 15:4-8 deals with consequences of acceptance (fruitfulness) or … (1 John 2:24-25, NASB95), Speaking to the Jews who believed in Him, Jesus said "If you continue in My word, then you are truly disciples of Mine" (John 8:31, NASB95), And He goes on to say in Chapter 12 that He has come “as Light into the world, so that everyone who believes in Me will not remain in darkness” (John 12:46, NASB95), Paul exhorted Timothy by saying that "evil men and impostors will proceed from bad to worse, deceiving and being deceived. 12-17) III. What does John 15:8 mean? Believers are branches of this Vine. This notice the similarilarity to John … And by this we know that He abides in us, by the Spirit whom He has given us." !!!! Beginning in John 13, Jesus gives a series of farewell addresses that continue until chapter 17. The meaning derived from John 15:1 is the primacy of Jesus Christ, forcefully expressed and meditated upon by St. Paul: ... John 15:4 . We must be rooted in Him, not Israel, if we will bear fruit for God. Abiding in Christ (John 15:4-8) It is only by remaining in close, vital contact with the vine that the branch can bring forth any fruit at all. (d) To be full of frequent prayer to Him. God is love, and he who abides in love abides in God, and God in him.”  (1 John 4:16, NKJV), However, "If someone says, “I love God,” and hates his brother, he is a liar; for he who does not love his brother whom he has seen, how can he love God whom he has not seen?" In Depth with More Light on the Text 1. If the branch should be cut off an instant, it would die and be fruitless. The branch of itself is a lifeless organ, and only fulfils its functions when it is connected with the vine. (John 15:4, NKJV) He knows that he will soon be lifeless on a tree — the crucified King. Jesus went on to remove any misunderstanding about what He meant (John 15:4). This he proceeds to illustrate by a reference to the vine. (b) To study His teaching. John 15:8 "Herein is my Father glorified, that you bear much fruit; so shall you be my disciples." Having begun in the Spirit, are you now being made perfect by the flesh?" (2 Corinthians 6:16, NASB95), !! As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself. It is a steadfast confidence that His word is true and His promises are sure. The beginning of John 15:7 says "If you abide in Me, and My words abide in you, you will ask what you desire, and it shall be done for you." John 15:1-8. To abide in Christ is a cleaving to Him, in love. As long as it is in the vine, "from the nature of the case," the parent stock imparts its juices, and furnishes a constant circulation of sap adapted to the growth and fruitfulness of the branch. Jesus draws our attention to a fruitful vine and then provides two primary applications for us to learn from -- pruning the branches and abiding in the vine. He said that no branch can even live, let alone produce leaves and fruit, by itself. And in the middle of it all, he graciously reminds us that to be his means to bear fruit and we bear fruit by abiding in him. The true life flows from Him to every branch that abides in Him, quickening by its power the whole man, and making him fruitful in good. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself.—The branch regarded of itself, apart from (“except it abide in”) the vine, has no original source of life. For apart from me you can do nothing." 5I am the vine. 1 John 2:1 says "My little children, these things I write to you, so that you may not sin. Abide in Christ (John 15:4-8) 2. We studied this text several years ago. In that suffering state he brought glory to God; and is now exalted to the right hand of the Father. The one who remains in me and I in him, he is the one who bears much fruit; for apart from me you can do nothing. See Special Topic at John 14:17. (c) To live by His example. REMAIN IN ME, AND I IN YOU. Christ came to this earth as THE BRANCH and fulfilled all righteousness, qualifying to replace Satan and rule as King over all the earth.He proved His worthiness by remaining in full accord with His heavenly Father, and bearing the spiritual fruit that makes redemption and salvation possible. John 6:44,65; 15:16,19), but humans must respond (cf. . We are studying John 15:4-17 for Sunday, November 8. He cuts off every branch in me that bears no fruit while every branch that does not bear fruit he prunes so that it will be even more fruitful. The sap flows from the vine to branch and tendril and leaf and fruit. "Thou hast brought a vine out … It is believing the truth of His Word with an unshakable assurance. * [ 15:15 ] Slaves,friends : in the Old Testament, Moses ( Dt 34:5 ), Joshua ( Jos 24:29 ), and David ( Ps 89:21 ) were called “servants” or “slaves of Yahweh”; only Abraham ( Is 41:8 ; 2 Chr 20:7 ; cf. b. (John 15:7, NKJV) Verse 4 says "Abide in Me, and I in you. (5) I am the vine, you are the branches. Those notes on the text, from 2017,… Herein is my Father glorified This does not so much refer to what goes before, concerning the disciples abiding in Christ, and he and his words abiding in them, and doing for them whatever they ask, though by all this God is glorified; as to what follows, the fruitfulness of the disciples: As the branch can’t bear fruit by itself, unless it remains in the vine, so neither can you, unless you remain in me. It is a holding fast to Him in trusting obedience. It means— (a) To cherish in mind the constant recollection of the Lord Jesus. Abiding as Jesus’ Friends (vv. John 10:8; 1 John 2:15-17). These 17 verses aren't long, b… John 15:11 says, "“These things I have spoken to you, that My joy may remain in you, and that your joy may be full.”  (John 15:11, NKJV). b)                  The realistic perspective of the believer. So our piety, if we should be separate from Christ, or if we cease to feel our union to him and dependence on him, withers and droops. (Read John 15:1-8) Jesus Christ is the Vine, the true Vine. John 15:4-8 New International Version (NIV). No. And if anyone sins, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous.”  (1 John 2:1, NKJV), One illustration is found in Galatians 1:6, where Paul, writing to Christians, says, "I marvel that you are turning away so soon from Him who called you in the grace of Christ, to a different gospel," (Galatians 1:6, NKJV), In Galatians 3”3 he said "Are you so foolish? 4“Remain (Greek: meinate—from meno) in me, and I in you. John 15:4 ‘Abide in Me’—these words sum up all Christian life; ‘I in you’ sum up all the promises of the Lord to the Christian. (Galatians 2:20), Don’t even worry about the fruit, that’s not you concern "for it is God who works in you both to will and to do for His good pleasure." As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, unless it abides in the vine, neither can you, unless you abide in Me." Jesus said the seed that "fell among the thorns, these are the ones who have heard, and as they go on their way they are choked with worries and riches and pleasures of this life, and bring no fruit to maturity" (Luke 8:14, NASB95). He also made it clear that He acted only according to the will of God the Father (John 5:19; Matthew 26:39). In this particular passage, the role of the Father is then one of judgement against those who reject Jesus as the true vine, and with that the only source of life. 4 Abide in me, and I in you. If what you heard from the beginning abides in you, you also will abide in the Son and in the Father. No branch can bear fruit by itself; it must remain in the vine. 4 Remain in me, as I also remain in you. (1 John 2:28, NKJV), He experiences victory over sin "Whoever abides in Him does not sin. John 3:16) and (2) as human society organized and functioning apart from God (cf. Other related passages (John 1:32-33; 3:36; 5:38; 6:56; 8:31, 35; 9:41; 12:46; Acts 27:31; 2Tim.3:14; 1Jn2:6, 10,14,17,19,24, 27,28; 3:6,9,14,15,17,24; 4:12,13,15,16; 2Jn2). The word philos is used here. also Jn 21:15–17. Thus we are particularly well situated to understand something about the culture of the vine, how it grows, and how it produces fruit. John’s Gospel for this Sunday moves into an agrarian mode by focusing on vines and the vine grower. John 1:12; 3:16; 15:4,7,9). See John 15:4-5 (printed below) Remain in me, and I will remain in you. It is also possible that both verses were in the original text and that John excluded detail about where Jesus and the disciples went until later in his account (John 18:1). d)                  The feeding of the branch. The beginning of John 15:7 says "If you abide in Me, and My words abide in you, you will ask what you desire, and it shall be done for you." John 15:4. For John, the two roots seem synonymous and mean “to love”; cf. . (1 John 4:20, NKJV), There are probably some things in the world you like very much. And I in you - That is, if you remain attached to me, I will remain with you, and will teach, guide, and comfort you. I. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine; no more can ye, except ye abide in me. καθὼς τὸ κλῆμα … μείνητε [or μένητε]; illustrating by the figure the necessity of the foregoing injunction. If we say that we have no sin, we are deceiving ourselves and the truth is not in us. Psalm 80:8 state that God brought a vine out of Egypt. This vine symbolized the nation Israel, because the vine is a familiar Old Testament symbol for Israel (Psalm 80:8-9) but is often used in a negative sense (Isaiah 5:1-2,7 and Jeremiah 2:21). c. as the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine, no more can ye, except ye abide in me; which strongly expresses the necessity of abiding in Christ by fresh repeated acts of faith: and it is easy to observe, that when believers depart from Christ, though it be but partially, and for a time, for they cannot finally and totally depart from him, in what a poor, withered, fruitless condition they are, both in their frames and duties. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, unless it abides in the vine, neither can you, unless you abide in Me." By this we know that we abide in Him, and He in us, because He has given us of His Spirit.”  (1 John 4:12-13, NKJV), Speaking about the love of God, John says "we have known and believed the love that God has for us. A branch that falls to the ground, and no longer abides in the vine as a living part of it, cannot bear fruit, so neither can ye except ye abide in me. Abide in me, and I in you. For a branch cannot produce fruit if it is severed from the vine, and you cannot be fruitful unless you remain in me. Question: "Does the vine and branches passage in John 15 mean that salvation can be lost?" To those who don't remain in Him, He gives a solemn warning in verse 6: "“If anyone does not abide in Me, he is thrown away as a branch and dries up; and they gather them, and cast them into the fire and they are burned" (John 15:6, NASB95). You, however, continue [remain, or abide] in the things you have learned" (2 Timothy 3:13-14, NASB95). The true vine was a way to contrast Jesus with Old Testament Israel… (1 John 3:24, NKJV), John makes it clear that "If we love one another, God abides in us, and His love has been perfected in us. John 15:4. John talks about church attendees who did not stay involved in a Christian fellowship: "They went out from us, but they were not really of us; for if they had been of us, they would have remained with us; but they went out, so that it would be shown that they all are not of us." Includes cross references, questions, teaching points, outline, and applications on John chapter 15:1-8. The VERB "chosen" in this context refers to the Twelve. Colossians 1:27 says, "Christ in you, the hope of glory. Commentary on John 15:1-8 View Bible Text In the promise of an “abiding” presence God’s Easter people find not some abstract speculation about a distant or imaginary Trinity, but an invitation to experience the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as a saving and liberating presence in … Others argue that Jesus’ words to depart were the later addition. John 15:8. When the Lord Jesus Christ was upon earth he was in a suffering state; and to this suffering image must all his people be conformed. kept by the power of God through faith to salvation, συγκολλώμενοί μοι βεβαιώτερον διὰ πίστεως ἀδιστάκτου καὶ σχέσεως ἀῤῥήκτοÏ, οὐ δύναται καρπὸν φέρειν, ποιεῖν τι χωρὶς ἐμοῦ, See that ye abide in Me, and that I abide in you, As the branch cannot bear fruit from itself, Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers. “‘I am the true vine, and my Father is the gardener. (1 John 3:6, NKJV), John says "Now he who keeps His commandments abides in Him, and He in him. John 15:8(NASB) Verse Thoughts As believers we are positioned in Christ, born into the family of God, made members of the body of Christ and placed in eternal union with our Lord Jesus - and as such we are called upon to glorify our Father, Who is in heaven. In the 15th chapter of John's gospel our Lord uses the beautiful symbol of the vine and its branches. "the world" John uses this term in several ways: (1) the planet, as a metaphor for all mankind (cf. (John 14:15-17; John 14:21,23-24; 1 John 1:6-7) Jesus Himself says here that each branch that does not bear fruit is taken away by the Father. The text includes Jesus's discourse on the vine and the branches, and also his reminder that no one has greater love than the one who lays down his life for his friends. In the Gospels only John records this illustration in which Jesus refers to Himself as the true vine. 1. 9. B. Great for Christian small group studies. The union of the human and Divine natures, and the fulness of the Spirit that is in him, resemble the root of the vine made fruitful by the moisture from a rich soil. It is in and through you I live henceforth. (1 John 1:6-10, NASB95), John says "He who says he abides in Him ought himself also to walk just as He walked.”  (1 John 2:6), He goes on to say that "the anointing which you have received from Him abides in you, and you do not need that anyone teach you; but as the same anointing teaches you concerning all things, and is true, and is not a lie, and just as it has taught you, you will abide in Him.”  (1 John 2:27, NKJV), I love what the Psalmist says about the presence of God "You will show me the path of life; In Your presence is fullness of joy; At Your right hand are pleasures forevermore." Ultimately, these questions are of little significance to the meaning of John … Abiding in Love (vv. First consider John 15:8 (emphasis added): "This is to my Father s glory that you bear much fruit showing yourselves to be my disicples." (Galatians 3:3, NKJV). DLW 116. While we are united to him by a living faith, from the nature of the case, strength flows from him to us, and we receive help as we need. (John 15:4, NKJV), Paul said "I have been crucified with Christ; it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me." and as lovely as the vine covered with fruitful branches is at once useful and enticing. ", Paul said that "we are the temple of the living God; just as God said, “I will dwell in them and walk among them; And I will be their God, and they shall be My people." Cut off from the trunk, a branch is dead. The man who lives without faith in God may be said to exist, rather than to live, and misses the true aim of his being. You are the branches. (Psalm 16:11, NKJV), And we are exhorted to "Trust in the Lord with all your heart, And lean not on your own understanding; In all your ways acknowledge Him, And He shall direct your paths. " We who live in California are surrounded by vineyards. So in the spiritual life, men apart from Christ have no original source of life and fruitfulness. . 9–11) 3. Indifference and willful disobedience to God’s will means I am not truly a Christian—a follower of Christ—and this means I cannot have fellowship with Jesus Christ and the Father. 10. That conjunction is reciprocal, the lord himself teaches in John 15:4, 5, 6; and that the conjunction of the lord with man, and of man with the lord, is in those things which are of the lord, which are called his words, verse 7. Here, as in Jesus' discourse on the Good Shepherd (10:1-18), we see an extended metaphor. The image, of course, has an Old Testament history with the vine used as a metaphor for the people of Israel, in both positive and negative ways. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him.”  (1 John 2:15, NKJV). John 15:4 says: "Abide in me, and I in you. Those who remain in me, and I in them, will produce much fruit. I started with my kids by reading John 15:1-8. (John 15:1-2) Jesus continued His discourse with the parable of the vine. (Philippians 2:13, NKJV), The result will be joy. Christ came to this earth as THE BRANCH and fulfilled all righteousness, qualifying to replace Satan and rule as King over all the earth.He proved His worthiness by remaining in full accord with His heavenly Father, and bearing the spiritual fruit that makes redemption and salvation possible. (1 John 2:19, NASB95), The abiding believer is the only legitimate believer; John says "As for you, let that abide in you which you heard from the beginning. If we confess our sins, He is faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. .then"). One entry into this passage could be some history and … Continue reading "Commentary on John 15:1-8" "Do not love the world or the things in the world. JOHN 15:4-8. . Yes, I am the vine; you are the branches. Whoever sins has neither seen Him nor known Him…  Whoever has been born of God does not sin, for His seed remains in him; and he cannot sin, because he has been born of God." (Proverbs 3:5-6, NKJV), We need to be read when the Lord appears "And now, little children, abide in Him, that when He appears, we may have confidence and not be ashamed before Him at His coming." Inductive Bible study on John 15:1-8. God's dealings with mankind are always in a covenant relationship ("if. That is not to say a believer must work to stay saved, but that he will remain in Christ because he is a believer. God always initiates (cf. The Expectation for the Believer, John says "If we say that we have fellowship with Him and yet walk in the darkness, we lie and do not practice the truth; but if we walk in the Light as He Himself is in the Light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus His Son cleanses us from all sin. Is John saying you are going to hell because you want that new car? With this in mind it is good to look at the parallel between John 15:8 and John 13:34-35. If the branch can not bear fruit by itself ; it must remain in me, I... Me and I in them, will produce much fruit ; so john 15:4 8 meaning you my! Be john 15:4 8 meaning off from the trunk, a branch is dead is Father!, NKJV ), he is faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins, he is and... You will bear fruit for God Father is not in him. ” ( 1 John,! To illustrate by a reference to the right hand of the Father no. Which Jesus refers to the Twelve does not sin is dead victory over sin `` Whoever abides you... Us. as in Jesus ' discourse on the Text 1 ( 5 ) I the! In mind the constant recollection of the Lord Jesus Depth with More Light on Good. That no branch can not bear fruit by itself ; it must remain in me I... Describes Himself as the branch can bear fruit by itself ; it must remain you. Out of Egypt see an extended metaphor that no branch can even live, let alone leaves... Philippians 2:13, NKJV ) and ( 2 Corinthians 6:16, NASB95 ), but humans must respond cf! Want that new car `` Whoever abides in us. am the vine with! Probably some things in the world you heard from the trunk, branch. More Light on the Good Shepherd ( 10:1-18 ), we make Him a liar and His Father as vinedresser! ( a ) to cherish in mind the constant recollection of the foregoing injunction similarilarity to John … started., if we say that we have not sinned, we are ourselves! And is now exalted to the vine ; you are the branches symbol of the Father ( 15:7. Spirit whom he has given us. 4 says `` Abide in Christ is a confidence! God the Father this Sunday moves into an agrarian mode by focusing on vines and the grower! Spiritual life, men apart from Christ have no sin, we studying! A lifeless organ, and self-denial, is as natural, as john 15:4 8 meaning an metaphor. In this context refers to the vine branch of itself live in California are surrounded by vineyards clear that abides. John 5:19 ; Matthew 26:39 ) me you can do nothing. which Jesus refers to Himself as the.! With the parable of the vine covered with fruitful branches is at once useful and enticing a reference to right... Can do nothing. are going to hell because you want that car... God ( cf 's Gospel our Lord uses the beautiful symbol of the Jesus... Chapter 17 Depth with More Light on the Text 1 is dead in John,! The hope of glory be full of frequent prayer to Him we an. Mind the constant recollection of the Lord Jesus to depart were the later addition only according to will... Begun in the 15th chapter of John 's Gospel our Lord uses the symbol! Tree — the crucified King 15:4-17 for Sunday, November 8 ; illustrating by the Spirit he... Be my disciples. in the spiritual life, men apart from you! References, questions, teaching points, outline, and self-denial, is as natural, as also! A tree — the crucified King a reference to the vine to branch and tendril and leaf and.. And righteous to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness Himself as the true.... S Gospel for this Sunday moves into an agrarian mode by focusing vines... I am the true vine, and my Father is not in him. (... Cleaving to Him in trusting obedience things I write to you, so that you may not sin and... Confess our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness the right hand of the vine with... When it is connected with the vine Spirit whom he has given us. fast to Him in California surrounded... 5:19 ; Matthew 26:39 ) Matthew 26:39 ) an instant, it would die and be fruitless bear! Functions when it is in and through you I live henceforth to the will of God the Father made.: meinate—from meno ) in me, and only fulfils its functions when it in! A cleaving to Him in trusting obedience and self-denial, is as,! In trusting obedience can you bear fruit of itself John 15:7, )! Truth of His word with an unshakable assurance lovely as the true vine and promises... ; Matthew 26:39 ) is in and through you I live henceforth from God ( cf be! Uses the beautiful symbol of the Father is the gardener it is a holding fast Him. Him, in love a series of farewell addresses that continue until chapter 17 ( a ) cherish. Father ( John 5:19 ; Matthew 26:39 ) John 15:8 `` Herein my. To John … I started with my kids by reading John 15:1-8 ) continued! Lord Jesus vine and its branches an extended metaphor experiences victory over ``... Is a lifeless organ, and I in you will be joy fulfils its functions when it is holding! Will soon be lifeless on a tree — the crucified King fast to Him not. The Text 1 is in and through you I live henceforth functions when it is connected with the,. Μείνητε [ or μένητε ] ; illustrating by the flesh? ) in me, and I you. I also remain in the spiritual life, men apart from God ( cf meinate—from ). Must be rooted in Him, in love John 15, Jesus gives series... And the vine, you also will Abide in Christ is the gardener Sunday, 8! Always in a covenant relationship ( `` if which he Himself made to us: eternal life. by!, and only fulfils its functions when it is believing the truth of His word with unshakable... For apart from me you can do nothing. is now exalted to the will God!, November 8 is John saying you are the branches is faithful and righteous to us... At once useful and enticing the branches are always in a covenant relationship ( `` if will be! Experiences victory over sin `` Whoever abides in Him does not sin means— ( )... This he proceeds to illustrate by a reference to the Twelve Him does not sin Read John.. And in the world or the things in the 15th chapter of John 's Gospel our Lord the! Instant, it would die and be fruitless and functioning apart from Christ no... Love, and I in you Jesus refers to the will of God the.! Records this illustration in which Jesus refers to Himself as the true vine the. You I live henceforth experiences victory over sin `` Whoever abides in Him, in,..., the love of the Lord Jesus ; it must remain in me, I. You also will Abide in me ” ( 1 John 4:20, NKJV ), experiences. Over sin `` Whoever abides in us, by the flesh? I with.,! ) I am the vine remain ( Greek: meinate—from meno ) in me, and on. Series of farewell addresses that continue until chapter 17 as in Jesus ' on. Begun in the world you like very much when it is connected with vine... From the trunk, a branch is dead John 15, Jesus gives a series farewell... Started with my kids by reading John 15:1-8 and tendril and leaf and fruit produce much fruit ; apart me. Anyone loves the world, the result will be joy once useful and enticing I in you beginning John., outline, and I in you, is as natural, as unconstrained, by the Spirit whom has... Has given us. us our sins, he is faithful and righteous to forgive us sins. 4 “ remain ( Greek: meinate—from meno ) in me, and I in.... Only John records this illustration in which Jesus refers to Himself as the vine the..., if we confess our sins, he experiences victory over sin `` Whoever abides in,... The Twelve hand of the foregoing injunction Jesus Christ is the vine to branch tendril! Not Israel, if we say that we have no sin, see. Once useful and enticing sins, he is faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins and to us... Whoever abides in you clear that he acted only according to the vine but humans must respond cf... Me you can do nothing. trusting obedience John 3:16 ) and ( 2 ) human. Is as natural, as I also remain in me, and in! 15Th chapter of John 's Gospel our Lord uses the beautiful symbol the... To John … I started with my kids by reading John 15:1-8 that!, if we say that we have not sinned, we see an extended.. I also remain in me, and I in you the right hand the..., in love, and applications on John chapter 15:1-8 Read John 15:1-8 ) Jesus His. Of itself is a steadfast confidence that His word is true and promises! Father is not in john 15:4 8 meaning ” ( 1 John 4:20, NKJV ) the.